Psoriatic skin is characterized by dense infiltrates of T cells and cells of the innate immune system, including neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages, and NKT cells. Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin. These skin patches are typically red, itchy, and scaly. The underlying mechanism involves the immune system reacting to skin cells. Skin characteristics typical for psoriasis are scaly, erythematous plaques, papules, or patches of skin that may be painful and itch. 8 Psoriasis is classified as a papulosquamous disorder and is most commonly subdivided into different categories based on histological characteristics. Psoriasis is a complex autoimmune inflammatory disease that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and presents with the development of inflammatory plaques on the skin ().
Increased cellular activity in the epidermis due to the rapid proliferation of the epidermal cells. The abnormal features in the pathogenesis of psoriasis include irregular epidermal proliferation and increased mitotic figures in keratinocytes, superficial vascular dilatation and proliferation. Histopathology of pustular psoriasis: there is characteristic spongiform pustules in the upper epidermis lined with swollen epidermal cells and contain polymorph nuclear leukocytes. Pathogenic role for skin macrophages in a mouse model of keratinocyte-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation. Alterations in HS content are characteristic for several inflammation disorders 11,12, including psoriasis 13,14.
Psoriasis is a common relapsing and remitting immune-mediated inflammatory disease that affects the skin and joints. Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory arthritis that develops in at least 5 of patients with psoriasis. Psoriatic arthritis is most commonly a seronegative oligoarthritis found in patients with psoriasis, with less common, but characteristic, differentiating features of distal joint involvement and arthritis mutilans. The inflammatory nature of the skin and joint lesions in psoriatic arthritis is demonstrated by synovial-lining cell hyperplasia and mononuclear infiltration, resembling the histopathologic changes of RA. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that is characterized by thickened, scaly plaques, and is estimated to affect 1 3 of the Caucasian population.
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Histopathology. The histologic features commonly present in psoriasis include acanthosis (uniform elongation of the rete ridges), parakeratosis and orthokeratosis, loss of the granular cell layer and the formation of spongiform pustules and parakeratotic microabscesses. Psoriatic arthritis synovial histopathology: commentary on the article by Kruithof and colleagues. At places, we have tried to demonstrate the similarity between histopathological features and the physical world around us. Dowling Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by spotted and reticulate pigmentation of the flexures. PsA has several unique characteristics different from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), such as enthesopathy, dactylitis, and abnormal bone remodeling. Subcutaneous injections of IL-23 in mice induced psoriasis-like changes of erythema and induration as well as histological features such as acanthosis and parakeratosis 26, 27, and this IL-23-induced psoriasis-like inflammation requires CCR-6 28. MMP-1 and MMP-3 are found in the sublining layer cell populations as well as in some lining layer cells, which may be responsible for the severity of the joint symptoms of PsA. The cellular infiltrate is predominantly in a perivascular distribution, although cells may migrate to the lining layer of the joint or the epidermis. The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for the reciprocal process of pathological new bone formation in PsA need to be more carefully examined. Clonal characteristics of T cell infiltrates in skin and synovium of patients with psoriatic arthritis.