The presence of GT and FT is higher in PG than in the HC. GT is associated with disease severity and may be a marker of the psoriasis severity. Geographic tongue and fissured tongue in 348 patients with psoriasis: correlation with disease severity. GT is associated with disease severity and may be a marker of the psoriasis severity. Geographic tongue (GT) and fissured tongue (FT) are the more frequent oral lesions in patients with psoriasis. The severity of vulgaris psoriasis was determined according to PASI. GT is associated with disease severity and may be a marker of the psoriasis severity.
Occasionally psoriasis may involve the oral mucosa or the tongue. Geographic Tongue and Fissured Tongue in 348 Patients with Psoriasis: Correlation with Disease Severity. GT is associated with disease severity and may be a marker of the psoriasis severity. Patients were examined for oral lesions and psoriasis severity was assessed by overall severity index (OSI) and psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). Dis Markers 2011;31:361-70.
In severe cases, and occasionally in severe cases in non-HIV-infected persons, excruciating and disabling pain may last for many months. (52) Extensive molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous marker of advanced HIV disease (CD4 50). Many HIV-infected patients with severe psoriasis have responded favorably to etretinate, a retinoid given in standard doses. A geographic tongue (i.e., showing migratory white patches) may also be found in patients with RS. The inflammation is usually most severe in the sigmoid and rectum and typically diminishes higher in the colon. Inflammatory bowel disease is much more common in industrialized nations, urban areas, and northern geographical latitudes. People with Crohn’s disease have an increased risk for psoriasis. Geographic tongue, fissured tongue, and hairy tongue are the most common tongue problems and do not require treatment. Oral hairy leukoplakia, which can be a marker for underlying immunodeficiency, is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is treated with oral antivirals. 2,14 Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is a rare disorder of unclear etiology that is characterized by a triad of severe fissuring, relapsing orofacial edema, and facial nerve palsy.15.
Psoriasis: Epidemiology, Clinical Features, And Quality Of Life
The first human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype association with inflammatory disease was discovered in 1972, correlating HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis. Despite these observations, recognition of geographic tongue as a true oral expression of psoriasis has been questioned, particularly when the existence of geographic tongue predates cutaneous psoriasis by many years. Assessment of specific inflammatory markers may also be relevant for evaluating the extent of oral disease in the affected patients 31. Severe oral manifestations of psoriasis, particularly in association with other sites of involvement, may require systemic intervention. Also rarely, severe psoriasis vulgaris develops into generalized pustular psoriasis. Presence of CDB+ T cells within the epidermis is believed to be a key event in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, with up to one third of them expressing the activation markers. The geographic tongue may be used alone, but also in connection with, for example, bacterial infections (strep) and fungal infections (Candida) occur. Further studies should clarify its view whether a tongue contribution could be suitable as a marker for the severity of the skin disease.