A case of asymptomatic geographic tongue in three-year-old male child and literature review with new insight in aetiology is presented here. It is also referred by various terminologies such as benign migratory glossitis, erythema migrans, annulus migrans and wandering rash of the tongue 1. Association with psoriasis: Due to similarities in clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings, few researchers consider geographic tongue as as oral manifestation of psoriasis. GT and fissured tongue have been reported in association with chronic granulomatous disease 54. 1982;53:15256. The incidence of this lesion was significantly higher in males than in females (p0.01). The results of the present study can also be due to mild symptoms of the disease or lack of knowledge of the children about psoriasis disease. In most cases geographic tongue does not hurt and just appears unslightly and does not cause any discomfort whatsoever. (at least 1-2 of the population), including children, and it can also run in families. It has also been reported in studies that patients have been seen with generalised pustular psoriasis, a high proportion, of these patients will have had heavily fissured tongues, which indicated that otherwise normal healthy individuals may possess the propensity to develop generalised pustular psoriasis.
Benign migratory glossitis also known as geographical tongue is a recurrent condition of unknown etiology characterized by loss of epithelium particularly of the filiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. 3 According to Jainkttivong and Langlais4 the highest incidence of geographic tongue is in the 20-29 age group. It is reported to begin in childhood and is most frequently observed in children four to four and half years of age. Some have reported links with various human leukocyte antigens, such as increased incidence of HLA-DR5, HLA-DRW6 and HLA-Cw6 and decreased incidence in HLA-B51. 12 Some studies have reported a link between geographic tongue and psoriasis, 15 although 90 of children who are diagnosed with geographic tongue do not develop psoriasis. Since most cases cause no symptoms, reassuring the person affected that the condition is entirely benign is usually the only treatment. High rates of psoriasis have been reported in people of the Faroe islands, where one study found 2. Type I disease accounts for more than 75 of cases. The patches may evolve and spread, changing on a daily basis, can assume distinct annular patterns and may resemble a map, hence the term geographic tongue. In children, an acute episode of guttate psoriasis is usually self limiting; Hum Mol Genet1997;6:134956.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin. About 75 of cases can be managed with creams alone. Psoriasis vulgaris (also known as chronic stationary psoriasis or plaque-like psoriasis) is the most common form and affects 85 90 of people with psoriasis. Fissured tongue is the most common finding in those with oral psoriasis and has been reported to occur in 6. While the exact etiology of geographic tongue is unclear, multiple causes have been proposed. Hairy tongue, also referred to as black hairy tongue or coated tongue, affects just 0. 2014;145:4556. (20) No studies of this infection have been conducted in HIV-infected patients, but we have diagnosed and treated several cases at San Francisco General Hospital that had in common neutropenia and advanced HIV disease. In mild cases, soap and water are adequate for bathing skin lesions, but in severe cases, compresses (2 or 3 times daily) help remove necrotic debris. (56) Reports also describe HPV in the anorectal carcinomas of homosexual men. A geographic tongue (i.e., showing migratory white patches) may also be found in patients with RS.
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Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a rare pustular form of psoriasis in pregnancy, associated with constitutional symptoms and complications of secondary infection and sepsis and an increased risk of fetal abnormalities and stillbirths. Oral cavity examination revealed geographic tongue. Children exposed in utero to cyclosporine have been shown to have normal renal function. You may – or may not – know that our almost-two-year-old has been having medical issues for quite a while. These days (2010), Jacob is a big hulking kid who has the occasional loose stool but has been toilet trained successfully almost a year ago. Are important in psoriasis also play a role in the clinical course of psoriasis. Focal infections and stress have been reported as triggering factors and smoking may aggravate the condition. Endocrine factors: Psoriasis severity has been noted to fluctuate with hormonal changes 3. Psoriasis has been linked to a number of other diseases especially metabolic derangements and arthritis 3-5. The estimate of prevalence psoriasis varies among different ethnic groups and also by geographical location, more common in colder northern zone compared to tropical zone and has been reported to vary in between 0 to 11. Although arthritis typically occurs in fourth and fifth decade, no age is exempted with cases involving young children and elderly. A group of 112 subjects without psoriasis (56 men, 56 women; Signs present in the oral environment may involve the soft tissues and include a geographic tongue, fissured tongue, as well as gingival and/or mucosal lesions 3. Comparison was also made between the psoriatic population without PsA and the healthy controls. Several studies have reported that the prevalence of TMJ symptoms and signs varies widely in the general population 10, 24, 26, 29-31, but data are lacking on the prevalence of TMD in psoriasis and in PsA.