Teunissen et al. in the current issue and Villanova et al. (JID, 134, 984-99) now suggest an important role for type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) in the skin, particularly in psoriasis. Psoriasis cannot be explained purely by genetics (Elder et al 2001) or environment; it has a complex immunopathology that is not fully understood. PubMed; Goedkoop AY, Kraan MC, Teunissen MBM, et al. 1989; Christophers 1996; Nickoloff & Nestle 2004; Lowes et al. 1996) or endothelium-specific antibodies (Corada et al. 1999). Histology allows the analysis using light microscopy (LM), immunohistology or electron microscopy (EM).
The trends from (Bertrand-Vallery et al 2010; Teunissen et al 1993) were fitted into a sigmoid equation known as the Emax equation (MacDougall 2006). Also, clinical data support the involvement of Th17 cells in psoriasis, as early disease improvement in patients treated with the TNF- inhibitor etanercept coincides in time with the reduction of Th17 gene products and downstream effector molecules 26. Psoriasis is a disease with a genetic background (4). De Rie MA, Teunissen MB, Piskin G. Psoriasis: dysregulation of innate immunity.
Similar to clinical trials in RA, trials in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown excellent clinical results with the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab in a variety of domains including the joints, quality of life, function, and slowing of disease progress as evidenced radiologically. Ann Intern Med1999;130:47886. Tak PP, Maarten C, Kraan A, Goedkoop A, Teunissen M, de Rie M, et al. Injection of pre-psoriatic skin with CD4+ T cells induces psoriasis. Am J Pathol 1999; 155:145. Teunissen MB, Koomen CW, de Waal Malefyt R, et al. Interleukin-17 and interferon-gamma synergize in the enhancement of proinflammatory cytokine production by human keratinocytes. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease mediated by IFN- -expressing type 1 memory T cells. 1999. The majority of epidermal T cells in Psoriasis vulgaris lesions can produce type 1 cytokines, interferon-, interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor-, defining TC1 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte) and TH1 effector populations: a type 1 differentiation bias is also measured in circulating blood T cells in psoriatic patients. Piskin, G., R. M. Sylva-Steenland, J. D. Bos, M. B. M. Teunissen. Saelee, Chanachai; Thongrakard, Visa; Tencomnao, Tewin et al., Molecules, 2011.
Finding The Optimal Dose For Psoriasis Ultraviolet Radiation Therapy Through Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimization On A Skin Model
The PKC inhibitor AEB071 may be a therapeutic option for psoriasis. Teunissen, M.B., Koomen, C.W., de Waal, M.R., Wierenga, E.A., Bos, J.D. 1998. Abrams, J.R., et al. 1999. CTLA4Ig-mediated blockade of T-cell costimulation in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Psoriasis is characterized by T cell mediated hyperproliferation of keratinocytes coupled with an inflammatory infiltrate. 276:26285-26290; Hudson and Kortt (1999) J. Immunol. Methods 231:177-189; and U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,778). Bifunctional antibodies are provided (see, e.g., Mack, et al. Teunissen et al., (J Invest Dermatol Oct. 1998; 111(4):645-649).